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Home >> Tibet Travel Guide >> Construction Of Eco-forestry In Tibet

Construction Of Eco-forestry In Tibet

Construction of eco-forestry in Tibet Construction of Eco-Forestry

The area of forests in Tibet reaches 7.17 million hectares, with standing timber reserves of up to 2.091 billion cubic meters. Tibet also boasts the largest primeval forests in China. In order to protect the ecological environment, the government strictly controls logging scale every year and the annual commercial felling has been kept below 150,000 cubic meters. In the meantime, timber bases are required to restore forest vegetation in a timely manner. In 2005, Jamda, Konjo and Mangkam counties in the upper reaches of Yangtze River had implemented projects to protect natural forests with the ecological commonweal forests covering 2,343 hectares, the closed forests 1,467 hectares and two million different kinds of seedlings had been cultivated, which completed total investment of 23.713 million Yuan. Using 71.28 million Yuan granted by the government as compensatory funds for eco-forestry efficiency, 327,000 hectares of forestation and 2.378 million hectares of closed forests were completed

According to statistics, the total area of protected forests in the whole of Tibet covers 31,000 square km at present. In areas suffering from severe sandstorms and soil erosion, such as the upper reaches of the Jinshajing, Lancangjiang and Nujiang rivers and the 28 counties in the Yarlung Zangbo River valley, efforts have been made to return farmland to forest. It is planned that 52,000 hectares of farmlands and 53,000 hectares of barren hills should be reforested. Thanks to forestation and effective protection of natural forests in recent years, forest coverage in Tibet has been on the rise, from less than 1 percent in the 1950s to the present 5.93 percent.

Protection of Biological Diversity

The Tibet Plateau boasts vast territory and various kinds of plants and vegetations from the tropical to cold area due to various landforms and different weather conditions. This is a region with the most typical of biological diversity and a major gene bank ensuring global biodiversity.

According to statistics, there are more than 9,600 species of wild plants and 6,400-plus kinds of higher plants so far identified, among which, there are more than 5,700 kinds of vascular bundle plants and 700-plus kinds of lichen plants. These belong to more than 270 families and 1510-plus genus¡¯s including more than 300 kinds used to make Tibetan medicine with special curative effect, and 39 are on Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) list and under national protection. The Tibet Plateau is also the exclusive habitat of approximately 600 species of higher plants and 200 species of terrestrial vertebrates.

Tibet is also rich in animal species. Of the 789 species of wild vertebrates, 125 are under national protection, accounting for more than one-third of wild fauna under national protection in the country. Forty-five wild vertebrates including kiang, wild yak, Bengalese tiger, black-necked crane, cloud leopard, snow leopard and so on are rare animals peculiar to China. In addition, Tibet has many kinds of special schizothorax fish whose species and quantity account for over 90 percent of the world total; of the 488 kinds of birds, 22 are special to Tibet and it has also nearly 4,000 species of insects,

According to the primary statistics, Tibet has more than 760 species of zooplanktons among its aquatic population, including 458 species of protozoan, 208 species of insects, 56 species of branchiopoda. Of the water plants, 340 species are diatom.

By the end of 2005, Tibet had set up 17 different kinds of eco-functional reserves including one State class, and one third of the land total in Tibet had become the home of the plants and animals. In addition, each city or district established or improved the supervision and execution facilities such as environmental monitoring, forest police and forest armed police etc to crack down on the crimes that destroy forests and wild animals and plants; 420 forestry cases were dealt with in the year.

To insure the permanent utilization of the eco-environment and natural resources, Tibet will invest more than 22 billion Yuan with the support of the central government by the mid-century to construct more than 160 eco-environmental protection projects so as to improve the eco-environment of Tibet gradually.

The Eco-environmental Protection of Qinghai-Tibet Railway

Construction of eco-forestry in Tibet The primeval eco-environment of various kinds of eco-systems and plentiful biological communities along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway holds a special position in the global environment. However, it is very fragile and difficult to recover after being damaged and some damaged vegetations even needs over one hundred years to recover. Hence, the constructors of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway attached high importance to eco-environment protection and carried out many special engineering programs as the railway passed through areas such as the Hox Xil, Curmar River and Soiga Nature Reserves. A strategy of taking a devious route was adapted and especially after entering Tibet, the Yangbaijing Program was chosen to avoid the Lhunzhub Pengbo Black-Necked Crane Nature Reserve. Moreover, letters of liability covering environmental protection were signed with each unit in charge of construction and a close supervisory system for environmental protection was introduced.

According to the statistics, the funds invested in environmental protection projects along the whole Qinghai-Tibet Railway reached more than 1.54 billion Yuan (or 4.7 percent of total investment in the constructrion of the railway) mostly used to replant and conserve meadows and brushwood and establish more than 30 passageways for wild animals under the line.

Experts carried out examination research of vegetation recovery in frozen earth areas. The basic content of the environmental protection involved two items: doing well in pollution prevention and also doing well in overall eco-protection. After the Qinghai-Tibet Railway went into operation in 2006, waste disposal has been strictly controlled and environment-friendly energy sources such as solar energy or fuel boilers will be utilized in the heating facilities of each station on the plateau. The passenger train adapts a closed body and the garbage in the train has to be discharged at the appointed station and disposed together. The daily sewage of each station should also be disposed of to try to realize zero emission.

As shown in the environmental protection investigation of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway Construction taken by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China and so on, since the start of the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in June, 2001, the water environment of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has shown no obvious change and the eco-vegetation and wild animals has been effectively protected. Now, the water quality of Yangtze River and other river systems remain good and basically have undergone no change, which shows that, in the process of Qinghai-Tibet Railway construction, good effects have been achieved by adopting appropriate environmental protection measures.

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